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Texts could be parsed to identify and evaluate words, thereby perhaps discovering meaning. Facilitating assumptions about the nature of documents and authorial strategies were advanced.
For example, Luhn suggested that 'the frequency of word occurrence in an article furnishes a useful measurement of word significance. The document-database search technology sketched above maps easily to the Web and suggests that searching on the Web is an extension of IR:. We inherit, as well, an elaborate social context of search that has been applied to the Web.
Librarianship was the source of powerful social conventions of search even before the introduction of the technology of vertical files.
For example, Charles A. Cutter suggested rules for listing bibliographic items in library catalogues as early as Bibliographic standardization, expressed in the Anglo-American Cataloguing Code, was a powerful idea that promoted the view that the world could cooperate in describing bibliographic objects. An equally impressive international uniformity was created by the wide acceptance of classification schemes, such as the Dewey Decimal Classification DDC :.
The application of computer databases by midth century spurred many information communities to establish or promote social conventions for their information. At the height of the database era in the late s, vendors such as the Dialog Corporation offered access to hundreds of databases like ERIC, each presenting one or more literatures structured and indexed.
This social cooperation and technological conformity fostered the impression that, at least in regards to certain subject areas, the experts had their information under control.
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The social context of document-database search sketched above maps easily to the Web and suggests a benign, socially cooperative information environment:. We are now just learning that the Web has a different social dynamic. The Web is not a benign, socially cooperative environment, but an aggressive, competitive arena where authors seek to promote their Web content, even by abusing topical metadata. As a result, Web crawlers must act in self defense and regard all keywords and topical metadata as spam.
Debating whether topical metadata are spam or an essential step towards the construction of the semantic Web assumes that they are technologically appropriate additions to Web pages. To what extent are Web pages analogues of the legacy IR document-container of information? Documents added to the ERIC database thirty years ago are still retrievable.
There is every expectation that they can be retrieved next year. This expectation provides a rough definition of what it means to retrieve information — finding the same document time and again. The metaphor used in the working draft on the Architectural Principles of the Web Jacobs, August 30, , however, does not suggest retrieving the same thing time and again. Interacting with a Web resource gives one a snapshot:. Web resources are characterized as evolving, not static, resources. They are more like loose-leaf binder services than time-invariant database records:. If Web pages are snapshots then the critical question is rate of update.
Content churn and rapid birth and death cycles distinguish Web pages from the legacy IR document-container of information.
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Philosophers can address the issue of repeated refreshing of the 'same' Web page that presents 'different' content each time, as to whether this is the 'same' Web page or 'different' Web pages. Web content is only available through the mediation of a presentation device, such as a Web browser.
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Complicating Web presentation are security settings, different computer monitors, safe and unsafe Web colors, plug-ins, cookies, scripts, and so on. In fact, Web authors expend enormous amounts of time and energy engineering a consistent presentation across platforms.
This diagram illustrates that HTML code is parsed and deconstructed into a hierarchical content model. Style sheets that reference content elements are also parsed. A frame constructor mixes content with style rules into a hierarchy of content frames. Nested content frames are painted to create the presentation in a Web browser. Figure 1 implies that different HTML parsing rules, style sheet applications, frame construction algorithms, and so on, would produce a different presentation.
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WebMIRS: Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System - Semantic Scholar
Responsive design runs on a desktop, iPad, iPhone, Android tablet and Android phones. Real-time, interactive 3D Model of your warehouse makes moving inventory simple. Supports multiple concurrent users. Users have customizable roles and permissions. Generate customized reports. The unit, described in Nature , consists of computers with encoding and decoding software that translate digital ones and zeros into DNA's four bases: A, C, T, G.
Microsoft principal researcher Karin Strauss says the group wanted to prove there is a practical way of automating DNA data storage. Using this proof-of-concept device, researchers demonstrated its write and read capabilities by encoding the word 'hello' in snippets of DNA and converting it back to data.
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